Author: Henry George

Introduction to Bower

Let’s say you are building a website and you are using jQuery plugins, CSS frameworks or libraries. Managing all these resources one by one can be very complicated at times. Instead you can use Bower. Bower is a package manager that you can use in your web development projects, for example. It facilitates the task of downloading packages from libraries and frameworks such as jQuery, Bootstrap, FontAwesome, etc. You can download them one by one or list them all and download them directly in your project, then you just have to link them to the pages that will make use of these resources in your project.

Bower by definition is a package manager for the web, now that in ordinary Spanish means, well, it is a tool that allows us to define which libraries we need to use in our web application and the system detects the dependencies of the required packages.

When bower checks all the dependencies of the requested packages and finds any inconsistencies, it presents us with a minus so that we can choose which version we want to use.

Now you will wonder what kind of packages are available, well the packages range from jQuery to Bootstrap through Linux, it all depends on what our project needs, currently bower has almost fourteen thousand packages.

How to install Bower

Bower is an npm package therefore we need NodeJS and with the following command we can install it.

How to use Bower

Once Bower is installed we can use it immediately in our application to download the packages we want, let’s imagine that we need jQuery in our project for which we only need to use the following command.

As we have seen, it is quite easy to add new components, but it depends on someone’s memory to install the required packages, in order to define all the packages required by our project we use the bower.json file.

Fortunately, bower provides us with a command that allows us to create a basic bower.json file, followed by an example of the interactive command execution $ bower init .

Now what advantage we have with this bower.js file, the first thing would be portability since we only have to version this file in our version control system.

In this case, bower will detect the existence of a bower.json file and proceed to install the requested packages, allowing us to have our version control system cleaner and thus avoid having 50 versions of jQuery stored when in the end the one that interests us is probably the one last.

Specify packet destination

As we have already seen, the default destination for the packages is the bower_components folder , but it is very likely that this location is not to our liking.

Which will make the packages be saved in the web / vendor folder or whatever we want.

I hope it has meet your expectations.

Open source vs. closed source operating system

Programs, including operating systems and applications, are created using programming code. Programmers write the source code, which is then compiled into executable code, creating the product that you ultimately run on your computer. There are many operating systems for personal use, for business and industrial contexts, and some of them are closed source, and some are open source. In general, an open-source system is one in which the source code is visible to the user, while in open systems, the code cannot be seen.


The principle of an open-source program is that, as a user, you have the right to access the source code. If you are using a closed source system, you do not have access, even if you have purchased it with a commercial license. In addition to being able to see how a program has been implemented, many open source licenses allow you to improve and redistribute the program. However, this often depends on the type of license you use.


Having access to the source code is not the only difference between open source and closed source systems. While closed source operating systems are typically developed by corporations and modified only by organization personnel, open-source systems tend to be developed by large communities. Because open-source programs have visible code, users and consumers of the program can identify bugs and even fix them. For this reason, open-source systems tend to be improved more regularly than closed source ones.

Closed systems

There are many closed source systems in use. The Microsoft Windows and Apple OS X operating systems are closed source, and both platforms provide programs for a variety of computing contexts, including personal, server, and mobile. The most widely used operating systems for personal computers, particularly for desktop PCs, tend to be closed source, although open source alternatives are on the rise.

Open systems

There is a variety of open-source operating systems for desktop, server, and mobile devices. Although most PCs run on closed source systems, many Web servers run on open source platforms, particularly Linux, which became the most common open-source system in 2011. The rise of computers Mobile has also caused an increase in open-source operating systems, including Ubuntu Linux and Google’s Android and Chrome systems.


In addition to the fundamentally different principles involved when choosing an open or closed source operating system, there are some major differences between the systems available to users. Although Linux systems are free, many users are not comfortable using them since they can be more difficult for those who are not experts. However, with mobile computers, the use of open-source platforms is exposing these technologies to new users.